Areas of interest:

  • theory and history of architecture
  • sociology of architecture
  • architecture of military hospitals

PhD in architecture. Lecturer at the Architecture Department of the B. N. Yeltsin Ural Federal University. Three-time recipient of the Boris Yeltsin Foundation scholarship for young scholars and graduate student involved in pioneering research crucial to the modernization of the Russian economy (from 2015−2018 and from 2018−2021).

List of academic publications:

Федорова М. С., Холодова Л. П. Изменение архитектурного облика военных госпиталей в России с 1707 г. // Вопросы истории. 2018, № 9. стр. 142−145

Федорова М. С. Архитектурный анализ планировочных решений первых заводских госпиталей Урала. // Архитектон: известия вузов. 2013. № 4 (44)

Федорова М. С. Ключевые этапы в истории развития норм для проектирования военных госпиталей. // Архитектон: известия вузов. 2014. № 3 (47)

Федорова М. С. Из истории эволюции объемно-планировочных решений челябинских госпиталей. // Приволжский научный журнал. Нижний Новгород, 2015. № 2. C. 91−97

Федорова М. С., Холодова Л. П. Эволюция объемно-планировочных решений военно-морского госпиталь в Кронштадте. // Архитектон: известия вузов. 2018. № 2 (62)

Федорова М. С. Эволюция архитектуры военных госпиталей в России (с 1707 г. по настоящее время). Диссертация на соискание ученой степени кандидата архитектуры

Fedorova, M.S., Holodova, L.P. Review of history of changes of space-planning decision of Factory Hospital in Nizhny Tagil // «International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conferences on Social sciences and Arts» SGEM Albena, Bulgaria 2015, P. 601−606

Fedorova, M.S., Holodova, L.P. History and analysis of changes in planning structure of the first russian military hospital in Lefortovo // «International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conferences on Social sciences and Arts» SGEM Albena, Bulgaria 2016, Р. 367−375

Military hospitals: The evolution of architecture as a demonstration of social change

The study focuses on the search for links between changes in the field of architecture and in society as a whole, through the case of military hospitals. The 300-year history of governmentally provided medical care in Russia has its beginnings in the military field. Peter the Great organised a system of military hospitals and military-medical schools. Wounded and sick soldiers were among the first to receive free health care; later, the system’s chief characteristics were taken over by civilian medicine.

Military hospitals primarily serve to return combatants to active duty. Due to their specific nature, military hospitals have a number of distinctive features. They are closed systems and communities apart, with irregular numbers of patients. The study exemplifies how architecture reflect many attitudes to the degree of significance and value attached to each functional element. One of the most important determinants defining change in military hospital architecture to emerge was the changing ideology of war and the role of the soldier, as well as changing ideas of medicine and hygiene, the development of military technology and improvements to normative documentation and construction technologies (materials and techniques).

The study is based on work with archival materials, diaries and notes of military doctors, soldiers, historical memoranda, order, and construction norms.

The study aims to clearly demonstrate how strongly architecture is linked to its social context. The study of architectural development is impossible at a remove from the social and cultural conditions, just as architecture is impossible to imagine as something that does not affect these conditions, however minimally. Changing hospital architecture allows one to see the development of medicine, the changing roles of soldiers and doctors, the division into classes of «enlisted men» and «officers», servicemen and civilians, as well as attitudes to the discipline and organisation of treatment, the development of military technology and improved means of transportation.